Narkootikumid

HaraldHaak
18-06-2012
kell 12:29

Põhjalik sissevaade sellesse, kuidas sõda uimastitega aitab uimastikartellidel teenida miljardeid dollareid, leidub New York Timesis:

So in a spirit of empirical humility, we shouldn’t accept as gospel the estimate, from the Justice Department, that Colombian and Mexican cartels reap $18 billion to $39 billion from drug sales in the United States each year. (That range alone should give you pause.) Still, even if you take the lowest available numbers, Sinaloa emerges as a titanic player in the global black market. In the sober reckoning of the RAND Corporation, for instance, the gross revenue that all Mexican cartels derive from exporting drugs to the United States amounts to only $6.6 billion. By most estimates, though, Sinaloa has achieved a market share of at least 40 percent and perhaps as much as 60 percent, which means that Chapo Guzmán’s organization would appear to enjoy annual revenues of some $3 billion — comparable in terms of earnings to Netflix or, for that matter, to Facebook. /---/

“Drug cartel,” it turns out, is a whopper of a misnomer; neither the Mexicans nor the Colombians ever colluded to fix prices or supply. “I wish they were cartels,” Arturo Sarukhán, Mexico’s ambassador in Washington, told me. “If they were, they wouldn’t be fighting and driving up the violence.”

At first, Chapo’s organization controlled a single smuggling route, through western Mexico into Arizona. But by 1990, it was moving three tons of cocaine each month over the border, and from there, to Los Angeles. The Sinaloa has always distinguished itself by the eclectic means it uses to transport drugs. Working with Colombian suppliers, cartel operatives moved cocaine into Mexico in small private aircraft and in baggage smuggled on commercial flights and eventually on their own 747s, which they could load with as much as 13 tons of cocaine. They used container ships and fishing vessels and go-fast boats and submarines — crude semi-submersibles at first, then fully submersible subs, conceived by engineers and constructed under the canopy of the Amazon, then floated downriver in pieces and assembled at the coastline. /---/

Improvisation is a trafficker’s greatest asset, and in recent years, Sinaloa has devised an even more efficient solution to the perennial challenge of getting marijuana across the border. Grow it here. Several years ago, a hunter was trekking through the remote North Woods of Wisconsin when he stumbled upon a vast irrigated grow site, tended by a dozen Mexican farmers armed with AK-47’s. According to the D.E.A., it was a Sinaloa pot farm, established on U.S. National Forest land to supply the market in Chicago.

Heroin is easier to smuggle but difficult to produce, and as detailed in court documents, Chapo is particularly proud of his organization’s work with the drug. /---/

Chapo’s greatest contribution to the evolving tradecraft of drug trafficking was one of those innovations that seem so logical in hindsight it’s a wonder nobody thought of it before: a tunnel. /---/

There’s a reason coke and heroin cost so much more on the street than at the farm gate: you’re not paying for the drugs; you’re compensating everyone along the distribution chain for the risks they assumed in getting them to you.

HaraldHaak
20-06-2012
kell 14:27

Hea näide sellest, milline võiks olla normaalne, tasakaalukas uimastiharidus: Mentor UK hoiatab "legaalsete uimastite" eest.

Stories about an epidemic of ‘legal highs’ may sell papers and drive parents blood pressure soaring but they are lots of misconceptions.

Myth 1- “These drugs are legal” /---/

Myth 2- “If something is legal that means it’s safer and OK to use”. /---/

Myth 3- “Lots of young people are taking these drugs” /---/

Tips for Parents

- Like any drug, it’s important to not scare your children with a barrage of horror stories. This tactic can make young people blasé about the dangers of substances. They believe that these horror scenarios will not happen to them. /---/

Summary

• Don’t be fooled by the marketing. Just because it says it’s legal on the packet, it does not make it safe.
• They can have short term and also long term health effects. The risks are increased when mixed with other drugs and alcohol.

HaraldHaak
20-06-2012
kell 14:30

Üleelmises postis viidatud NYT-i kaaneloo tagamaid avab autor intervjuus:

I spent months reporting this piece, and nearly every day there was something that surprised me. A lot of it was the ways in which Sinaloa deals with mundane dilemmas facing any business. /---/

It was difficult to sort fact from rumor, and to wade through the garbage statistics that proliferate on this particular subject. But that sort of comes with the territory — this stuff is all sub rosa by definition, which creates reporting challenges. There have been numerous confirmed cases of corruption on both sides of the border, though, and in Mexico, at least, some of those cases have implicated very high levels of government. /---/

Legalization wasn’t a big focus in my reporting, but it certainly forms an important part of the political backdrop for this story. Predictably, most of the U.S.-based drug warriors I spoke with were staunchly opposed, whereas a number of people I interviewed in Mexico were more open to the idea. /---/ If marijuana did become legally available in a wider way here, the cartels would most likely innovate, as they have so many times before, either finding a way to service the remnants of the illegal economy (supplying people who sell to minors who might not be eligible to legally buy, for instance) or shifting their business to favor one of their other products, like meth. That’s not to say we shouldn’t legalize it, just that doing so would probably not prove devastating to the bottom line of the cartels.

HaraldHaak
21-06-2012
kell 09:02

Küsimusele, miks kanep on USA-s juriidiliselt samavääristatud väga ohtlike uimastitega (Schedule 1), on nüüd vähemalt üks ratsionaalne vastus: uimasteid ohtlikkuse alusel järjestama määratud ametkonna (DEA) juht ei suuda uimastitel vahet teha. Vahendab Raw Story:

During a House Judiciary Subcommittee hearing on Wednesday, Drug Enforcement Administrator Michele Leonhart repeatedly refused to admit that anything was more addictive or harmful than marijuana.

Democratic Rep. Jared Polis of Colorado pressed Leonhart on whether illegal drugs like methamphetamine and crack, as well as legal prescription drugs, caused greater harm to public health compared to marijuana. But within a three minute time-span, Leonhart dodged his questions eleven times.

“Is crack worse for a person than marijuana?” Polis, who has called for an end to marijuana prohibition, asked.

“I believe all illegal drugs are bad,” Leonhart responded.

“Is methamphetamine worse for somebody’s health than marijuana?” Polis continued. “Is heroin worse for somebody’s health than marijuana?”

“Again, all drugs,” Leonhart began to say, only to be cut off by Polis.

“Yes, no, or I don’t know?” Polis said. “If you don’t know this, you can look this up. As the chief administrator for the Drug Enforcement Agency, I’m asking a very straightforward question.”

Leonhart said that heroin was highly addictive, but accused Polis of asking a “subjective” question. After being pressed further, she conceded that heroin was more addictive than marijuana, but added “some people become addicted marijuana and some people become addicted to methamphetamine.”

HaraldHaak
21-06-2012
kell 09:06

Uruguaist kuulukse, et sealne valitsus tahab kuritegevusega võitlemise ja hädaliste ravilesuunamise tõhustamiseks kanepi legaliseerida ja riiklikuks monopoliks kuulutada. AP lühiuudust vahendab New Zealand Herald:

Uruguay's government plans to take a step beyond legalising marijuana. It wants to sell it.

Local news media and lawmakers report that the government plans to send a bill to Congress that would legalise marijuana sales as a crime-fighting measure. Only the government would be allowed to sell the cigarettes, and only to adults registered as users.


NORML näeb ennustab kaht kohest positiivset tagajärge:

1) Tourism! Like worldwide tourism!! I’m already looking in Uruguay for good fly fishing areas on Google Maps and buffing up on my Espanol…move over Amsterdam and Jamaica.

2.) Scientific and medical research regarding the remarkable therapeutic qualities of cannabis, along with unfettered research and commercialization of industrial hemp, can find a home in a country where the country’s leaders have the foresight to embrace the myriad of cannabis commerce, rather than waste valuable taxpayers’ dollars on trying to enforce feckless and unenforceable Cannabis Prohibition laws in otherwise freedom-loving, free market-oriented countries.

HaraldHaak
21-06-2012
kell 11:02

Bonni tööjõuuuringute instituut IZA on avaldanud järjekordse põneva kanepiteemalise (ja kahjuks eelretsenseerimata) uurimuse meditsiinilise kanepi legaliseerimise ja teismeliste uimastipruukimismäärade vaheliste seoste kohta, vahendab Forte Kanepitempi. Järeldus: seosed puuduvad.

Uurijad keskendusid legaliseerimise ja mitmesuguste tagajärgede, k.a kooli territooriumil toimuva kanepipruukimise, kooli territooriumil toimunud uimastimüügi-pakkumiste ning alkoholi- ja kokaiinipruukimise määrade vahelistele seostele.

Tulemused ei kinnitanud oletusi, mille kohaselt on just legaliseerimine toonud kaasa ohtrama kanepipruukimise koolides, uimastite sagedasema pakkumise kooliruumides või muude uimastite kasutamise.

Lisaks YRBS-i üleriigilistele andmetele rakendasid uurijad ka sama uurimuse osariiklikul tasandil vahemikus 1993–2009 kogutud andmeid ning 1997. aasta riiklikust pikaajalisest noorsoouuringust NLSY97 (ingl National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997) pärit andmeid.

Ükski allikas ei sisaldanud tõendeid, mis näidanuks, et meditsiinilise kanepi legaliseerimine toob kaasa teismeliste kanepikasutuse kasvu.

Nii YRBS-i kui NLSY97 kanepikasutuse-näitajad toetuvad uuringualuste väidetele. Seetõttu analüüsisid uurijad lisaks ravijuhtumite andmestikku TEDS (ingl Treatment Episode Data Set), mis sisaldab teavet selle kohta, kui paljudele föderaalselt rahastatavate sõltuvusraviasutuste patsientidele ravile pöördumise hetkel tehtud kanepiproov oli positiivne.

Tulemused andsid mõista, et meditsiinilise kanepi legaliseerimisel pole seost 15–20-aastaste patsientide kanepiproovide positiivsete tulemuste tõenäosusega.

HaraldHaak
21-06-2012
kell 12:00

Aprilli lõpus kirjutas EPL Aleksandrast, keda (ja kelle perekonda) olid uimasteid loota leidnud politseinikud tema enda väitel põhjuseta ähvardanud, alandanud ja piinanud. Nüüd on politsei läbi viinud sisejuurdluse ja leidnud, et kõik, mis Aleksandra jutus polnud puhas vale (nagu korduv alasti ja kükki sundimine), oli hädavajalik. Siiski raputatakse pähe ka tuhka: kongi seinad, milles Aleksandrat kinni peeti, olnud tõepoolest soditud...

Aleksandra tajus enda sõnul oma inimväärikust alandavana seda, et pärast haaranguga kinni pidamist kästi tal end täiesti alasti võtta ja kükke teha – ja mitte üks, vaid kolm korda. Tema hinnangul näitab protseduuri kordamine seda, et selle eesmärk ei olnud turvakontroll.
Sisejuurdlus aga kinnitas nüüd, et kõik toimingud olid vajalikud ja Aleksandra põhiõigusi ebaproportsionaalsel määral ei riivatud. Ka prokuratuur ei alustanud menetlust. /---/

Toimingu vajalikkust põhjendab [Põhja prefekt Elmar] Vaher nii: „Tegemist oli raske narkokuriteoga puutumuses oleva isikuga ning ametnikel lasuva riigi kaitsekohustusega, s.t kaitsta isikut tema enda või teiste eest.”


Nii et arvestage siis sellega: kui juhtute narkokuriteoga "puutumuses olema", näiteks suhtlete kellegagi, keda politsei kahtlustab uimastikuriteos, võidakse teiega teha igasuguseid trikke ja teil pole õigust selle pärast suud pruukida, kuna teid tuleb iga hinnaga kaitsta.

Kriminoloogiaprofessor Ginter näeb asja siiski tsipa teises valguses.

PPA on jätnud vastamata kõige tähtsamale küsimusele: milleks oli vajalik naise kahtlustatavana kinnipidamine? Politseioperatsiooni eesmärk oli tema kunagise elukaaslase S. G. kinnipidamine.

Kuna Aleksandrat ei ole keegi kunagi narkokuriteoga puutumuses kahtlustatavaks tunnistanud, siis seaduse silmis ei saa ka tema kinnipidamise põhjenduseks olla, et S. G.-d on kahtlustatud narkokuriteo toimepanemises. Seega peaks naise kinnipidamine kuidagi kaasa aitama võltsitud dokumendi esitamise kriminaalasja uurimisele. PPA vastusest ei ilmne, kuidas tema kinnipidamine sellele kaasa aitas. Selleks et isikut üle kuulata, on PPA käsutuses tema inimõigusi vähem riivavaid vahendeid. /---/

Tasub meeles pidada, et politsei mitte ainult ei pea käituma seaduslikult, vaid see peab ka näima seaduslik.

HaraldHaak
21-06-2012
kell 12:36

Naljakas, et äsja sai siin mainitud USA uimastite lahterdamise süsteemi esimest nimekirja Schedule 1 ja nüüd tuleb välja, et sellesse nimekirja listakse tänavu oktoobris terve ports uusi aineid, s.h mefedroon, MDPV, sünteetilised kannabinoidid ja 2C-fenetüülamiinide rühma kuuluvad ühendid. Eriti totter on olukord sellepärast, et ainete Schedule 1-e kandmise kriteeriumiteks on "suur kuritarvitamise potentsiaal" ja "meditsiiniliste rakenduste puudumine", kuid enamikuga lisatavatest ainetest pole keegi inimkatseid teinud ning pärast keelustamist on selliste katsete tegemine praktiliselt võimatu, kirjutab Neurobonkers.

The USA yesterday booted a host of previously unregulated drugs in to the “schedule 1″ bracket. The move appears to be a knee-jerk reaction to recent events such as the “bath salt zombie attack”, believed by the police (apparently based upon nothing but pure guesswork) to be related to “bath salts”, the name euphemistically given to unscheduled drugs when it is not clear from the packaging what chemical(s) a drug contains. If you think that sounded confused, you’d be right – in classic McCarthyist style, a whole host of drugs have been banned despite there having been no research in to their effects whatsoever. /---/

Paradoxically, the newly listed Schedule 1 drugs are to be defined as having:

“A high potential for abuse.. no medical use in treatment in the United States; and lack an accepted safety for use of the drug”

This is an ironic definition considering that not only is there a complete lack of human research for most of the drugs listed above, but now that these drugs are scheduled it is near impossible for US scientists, like UK scientists before them, to study these drugs to determine whether there could ever be a medical use for any of the drugs.


Pakutakse ka prognoose:

We will likely witness the chemicals above rapidly dumped on the underground market, to risk being mislabelled and sold as cutting agents. There is now little incentive for pharmaceutical companies to investigate relations of the drugs as they are now likely controlled under analogue legislation. Furthermore, there is now every incentive for underground drugs manufacturers to develop new drugs, with new unknown risks and contraindications, to be unleashed on the next generation of guinea pigs – and the self-defeating logic of the drug war once again prevails.

azad
26-06-2012
kell 08:21

Postimees on narkosurmade ja üldse narkoteema üles võtnud ja arvamusi küsinud:
Anvelt
Pevkur
Vaher

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 09:45

Hea jaur!

Kas keegi teab, kuidas Postimehes kommenteerida saab? Pärast Google-konto alt sisselogimist ja üritamist teksti postitada teatab veeb, et "palun sisesta pildilt turvakood", mida aga kusagil ei paista, on pilt ja turvakood.

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 09:51

Kui Wordpressi konto alt üritan sisse logida (olles juba kontole loginud), teatab veeb, et "You do not own that account". Fuck you, Postimees!

azad
26-06-2012
kell 10:27

Ekspress kirjutab ka.
Narkomaane tapab ka ravimiseks mõeldud metadoon

azad
26-06-2012
kell 10:31

Hea jaur!

Kas keegi teab, kuidas Postimehes kommenteerida saab? Pärast Google-konto alt sisselogimist ja üritamist teksti postitada teatab veeb, et "palun sisesta pildilt turvakood", mida aga kusagil ei paista, on pilt ja turvakood.


Ei õnnestunud see ka minul.

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 10:56

FB konto alt sai postitada küll, aga nüüdseks paistavad minu kommentaarid olevat kustutatud. Double fuck you, Postimees!

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 10:57

Whatever, postitan samad kommentaarid esialgu siia.

Anvelti artiklile:


> legaliseerimine ei ole kindlasti lahendus,
> kuna ta tooks Eestis kui ühes globaalse maailma
> avatumas punktis kaasa
> narkoturismi massilise invasiooni.

Esiteks, millest selline järeldus? Võib oletada, et kui „legaliseerida“ samadel alustel nagu Hollandis, kasvaks nn uimastiturismi osakaal mingil määral, aga see pole sugugi kindel. Teiseks pole aga mingit põhjust, miks uimastituru riiklikul kontrollimisel-reguleerimisel peaks kordama Hollandi vigu; on täiesti võimalik liberaliseerida uimastipoliitikat nii, et see probleemseid turiste kohale ei meelita — võib dekriminaliseerida nagu Portugalis (kus kardeti ka massilist uimastiturismi, mida aga pole seni järgnenud) või Tšehhis (eksperiment on kestnud liiga vähe aega, et selle edukuse kohta midagi kindlat väita, aga sealne rahvas ei paista nurisevat ning isegi paremerakonnad toetavad dekrimi-poliitika jätkumist), või luua kinniste klubide mudel nagu Hispaanias, või registreeritud kasutajate süsteem nagu kavatseb luua Uruguay. Kolmandaks poleks narkoturism, eriti kanepiturism tingimata taunimisväärsem kui alkoturism. Küsige ükskõik milliselt korraliku „tänavakogemusega“ politseinikult ja ta kinnitab, et kanepiuimas korrarikkujatega on vähem probleeme kui joodikutega ning neid on lihtsam ohjeldada.

> Samuti viiks ta olukorra veelgi enam kontrolli alt välja.

Tõsi — selles mõttes, et legaliseerimine (riikliku kontrolli ja regulatsiooni kehtestamine) viiks olukorra välja maffia kontrolli alt. Uimastituru ülevõtmine organiseeritud kurjategijatelt teeks kahju ainult kurjategijatele ja pistisest sõltuvusse jäänud korrumpeerunud ametnikele. Kuni kontroll uimastituru üle on maffia käes — mis lauskeelustamise tingimustes on vältimatu, nagu näitab maailma riikide saja-aastane kogemus —, vohab korruptsioon uimastipolitseis.

> Sihikule tuleb võtta just tänaval mürki müüvad inimesed

Mittevägivaldsete uimastikurjategijate küttimine on riikliku kontrolli ja regulatsiooni puudumise e uimastitevastase sõja tingimustes eos nurjumisele määratud plaan, nii nagu on eos nurjumisele määratud kõik püüdlused takistada karistuse ähvardusel nõustuvate osapoolte vahelisi äritehinguid. Sellepärast polegi mitte kusagil mitte kunagi võidetud sõda uimastite, prostitutsiooni ega hasartmängudega. Alkoholituru mudeleid analüüsides näeme samas selgelt, et uimasti riiklik kontroll ja regulatsioon aitab olukorda stabiliseerida. Meie alkoholipoliitika pole muidugi täiuslik, nagu näitab alaealiste alkopruukijate ohtrus, aga kindlasti on see parem lauskeelustamisest.

> Kui vaadata statistikas narkosurmade
> kasvavaid numbreid ja väikesemahuliste
> ehk diilerlusega seotud narkokuritegude
> arvu langust, siis on siin näha selget kollearatsiooni.

Korrelatsioon ei tähenda põhjuslikkust. Pisidiilerite küttimisega ei saavutata muud kui uimastite hinna tõus, mis muudab uimastiärika karjääri mõnede ettevõtlikumate isikute jaoks ainult ahvatlevamaks, mis omakorda tähendab piltlikult, et iga tänavatasandi uimastikaupmehe selja taga seisab varsti järjekord järgmiste innukate „eraettevõtjatega“, kes ootavad pikisilmi oma kuldset võimalust. Väikeste uimastikoguste omamise ja üleandmise eest kohaldatavate karistuste karmistamise ainsaks mõõdetavaks tulemuseks kõrgema taseme uimastikaupmeestele on aga, et nende niigi röögatud tulud kasvavad veelgi.

> Enne kui see olukord ei muutu,
> ei muutu ka midagi narkosurmade
> üldarvu osas.

Isegi Vaher teab, et narkosurmade kahandamise esimene eeldus on naloksooni kättesaadavus tarvitajaile ja nende lähedastele. Analüüsihindade kaela narkosurmasid ajada on ilmne vassimine.

> Võõrutusravi ei ole raha tuulde loopimine

„Võõrutusravi“ on nii lai mõiste, et kuni me ei täpsusta, mida sellega konkreetselt silmas peetakse, ei saa ka arutada, kas see on tõhus või ebatõhus. Metadoonravi on tõhusam kui mitte midagi, aga vähem tõhus kui HAT. Samas Eestis poleks HAT’ist (heroine assisted treatment) tolku, kuna meil ei pruugita niivõrd heroiini kui fentanüüli.

> tuleks tunduvalt tõhustada tööd koolides

Nõus, aga kuidas täpsemalt? Koolidesse narkokoertega reidide korraldamine ja valeväidetega kollitamine pole kindlasti „töö“, mida peaks jätkama. Vaja on teadmistepõhist, mitmekülgset ennetustööd ja haridust, muu hulgas ka kahjude kahandamise alast. Hirmutamine ja valetamine peaksid olema rangelt välistatud.

> eriti just mitte-eesti emakeelega koolides,
> kuhu kahjuks meie inforuumi teave sisuliselt ei jõua,
> mistõttu on need inimesed
> ka tunduvalt ohtlikumas riskirühmas.

Tohoh, mida see meie „inforuum“ siis sellist sisaldab, mida „nende inimeste“ eest keelebarjääriga varjatakse? Et kanep on kordniku maailmapildis sama kahjulik kui heroiin, kuna seaduse ees on mõlemad ühtviisi keelatud uimastid?

> Küll on aga tõsi see,
> et suuremas osas on probleem seotud
> mitte-eestikeelsete inimestega.

Kust selline teave pärineb? Minu andmetel Eesti riigis kurjategijaid eestikeelsuse alusel ei lahterdata, mistõttu puudub igasugune statistika selle kohta, mis-keelsed on probleemsed uimastitarvitajad. Väide võib olla tõsi, aga kust me seda teame? Kas lgp hr Anveltile lihtsalt tundub nii?

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 10:58

Pevkurile:


> parimaks ennetustööks oleks
> fentanüüli ehk «valge hiinlase»
> Eestisse toomise tõkestamine.

Hämmastavalt eluvõõras arvamus sotsiaalministrilt. Hr Pevkur võiks teada, et selleks, et illegaalsele uimastiturule mingisugustki tajutavat „mõlki“ tekitada, oleks vaja piiril kinni pidada üle 60 protsendi riiki saabuvatest uimastitest. Mitte ükski riik, ka kõige jõukam, pole seni suutnud piiril kinni pidada rohkem kui kümnendikku riiki tungivatest uimastitest. Heroiiniepideemia asemel on meil fentanüüliepideemia just sellepärast, et fentanüül on heroiinist palju kangem, mistõttu seda on palju kergem peita.

> Minister rõhutas, et fentanüül on
> sadu kordi kangem narkootikum kui näiteks heroiin.

Tänavaheroiinist võib puhas fentanüül tõesti olla sadu kordi kangem. Mida see aga praktikas tähendab? Lihtsalt seda, et, nagu juba öeldud, on seda kergem peita ja smugeldada ning süstides lihtsam üleannustada. Viimase probleemi vastu aitab parem kahjude kahandamise alase teabe levitamine (ainult voldikutest süstlavahetuspunktides ei piisa) ning, jah, naloksooni tegemine kättesaadavaks opioididtarvitajaile ja nende lähedastele.

> parim uimastiennetus on selline uimastiennetus,
> kus narkootilisi aineid turule ei jõua

Maailma saja-aastane kogemus uimastite keelustamise radikaalse ja tulutu eksperimendiga näitab, et selline olukord, kus narkootilised ained turule ei jõua, pole võimalik isegi kõige totalitaarsemates ühiskondades. Kuni riik ei võta kontrolli ja vastutust uimastituru reguleerimise eest maffialt endale, ei ole uimastiprobleemi tõeliselt tõhus lahendamine võimalik. Turgu kontrollides saaks riik aga inimeste tarbimisharjumusi maksustamise, ea- ja kättesaadavuspiirangute kehtestamise, laekuva maksutulu mõistuspärase kasutamise ja paljude muude meetmete kaudu suunata vähem probleemsete ainete mõistlikuma tarvitamise poole. Minister vast teab, et uimastitest üks tervise- ja ühiskonnaohtlikumaid on alkohol, aga vaevalt ta arvab, et alkoholi mõistlik tarvitamine terve inimese jaoks võimatu on.

> tuleb leida parim tasakaal ennetusele,
> ravile ja karistuspoliitikale suunatavate vahendite vahel

See on tõsi, aga kuni kestab lauskeelustamine, eraldatakse ennetusele ja ravile liiga vähe, ennetus- ja ravitööd otseselt õõnestavale karistuspoliitikale aga proportsioonitult palju vahendeid. Ühe käega ehitame, et teisega lõhkuda… Ei tundu pikas perspektiivis just mõistlik.

> samuti saab tõhustada haridusvaldkonna
> panust noorte teadlikkuse tõstmisel

Kindlasti, aga kuidas seda konkreetselt teha? Minu hinnangul tuleks suurendada teadmiste-, mitte propagandapõhise ennetustöö mahtusid ning hõlmata palju rohkem kahjude kahandamise alast teavet.

> valitsuse juures moodustati aasta alguses
> uimastiennetuse komisjon,
> mille esimesel koosolekul arutati
> elupäästva võimalusena ka naloksooni
> kasutamise reguleerimist

Kui sellest asjast asja saab, on see esimene tõeliselt arukas ja kindlasti tõhus samm Eesti viimaste aastate uimastipoliitikas. Väga kahju, et selle lihtsa lahenduse käimalükkamiseks oli vaja narkosurmade osas Euroopa vaieldamatuks liidriks saada.

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 10:58

Vaheri loole:


> Eesti karistuspoliitika peamine rõhk
> peab IRLi hinnangul olema raskete narkokuritegude
> toimepanijatel, kelle suhtes alates 2004. aastast
> saab tabamise korral rakendada kuni eluaegset vangistust.

Hr siseminister ehk teab, et mittevägivaldsete uimastikurjategijate karistuste karmistamine ei ole mujal maailmas toonud kaasa muud kui uimastite tänavahinna tõusu, pisidiilerite suurema rotatsiooni (ja see omakorda vanglate ummistumise) ja kõrgema taseme uimastikaupmeeste tulubaasi hüppelise kasvu. Range karistuspoliitika ei teeni mitte kusagil kellegi huve peale narkoparunite ja korrumpeerunud ametnike. Miks peaks Eesti olema erandiks?

> 2004. aasta muudatuse tagajärjel
> on uimastikaubitsejatele kohtute mõistetavad karistused
> järjest karmistunud, mis on selge signaal
> kuritegelikule maailmale ehk uimastite pakkujatele –
> vahelejäämise risk on tõusnud

Jah, ja see on omakorda selge signaal kuritegelikule maailmale, et siin on korralikult organiseeritud uimastiäriga võimalik märksa kiiremini haljale oksale saada kui mitmel pool mujal, kuna politsei hoolitseb selle eest, et uimastite hinnad ikka kenasti kõrgel püsiksid. Nõudluse kahandamiseks ei tee see meede midagi ning kuni püsib nõudlus, püsib pakkumine.

> Kergemate narkootikumide legaliseerimine,
> nagu näiteks kanep Hollandis,
> ei oma IRLi jaoks õigustust.
> Seda teed on vältinud enamus Euroopa riike.

Ja see peab olema õigustus? Kuidas jääb tõsiasjaga, et mitmetes Euroopa riikides, kus uimastipoliitikat on reformitud dekriminaliseerimise ja osalise legaliseerimise suunas, on uimastitega vähem probleeme kui meil või uimastisõja peamises kantsis USA-s? Ja kes ütles, et me peale narkootikumid legaliseerima just nii nagu Holland on „legaliseerinud“ kanepi? Kas teiste vigadest õppimine on välistatud?

> tihti viib lahjemate uimastite tarvitamine
> raskemateni ja seega suurendab
> sõltlaste hulka ühiskonnas.

Aga see on juba otsene vale. Vean kihla, et minister ei suuda leida ühtegi allikat, mis taolist levinud väärarvamust kinnitaks. Küll aga võib olukord, nagu praegu, kus seaduste ja propagandatöötaja hinnangu ees on kõik uimastid võrdselt kahjulikud, vähem teadlikku kontingenti kangemate ainete tarvitamisele meelitada. Palju tõhusamalt saaks inimeste tarbimisharjumusi suunata maksu- ja mitmesuguste müügi- ja tarbimispiirangute kehtestamisega, see pole aga võimalik, kuni kontroll uimastituru üle on loovutatud organiseeritud kuritegevusele.

> Samuti annab mõne uimasti legaliseerimine
> ühiskonnale vale signaali

Mis signaal see küll olla võiks ja miks see igal juhul „vale“ peab olema? Praeguse poliitika põlistamisega saadab riik vaid signaali, et ei hooli uimastiturul toimuvast ega probleemsete uimastitarvitajate aitamisest-rehabiliteerimisest. Kui riik võtaks kontrolli uimastituru üle aga vastutustundlikult enda kätte, oleks võimalik tarvitajaile sõna otseses mõttes signaale ja sõnumeid saata: trükkida uimastipakile infot, kuidas tarvitada võimalikult ohutult, kuhu pöörduda probleemide ilmnemisel, jne.

> Lisaks nn šokikoolitused, mis toovad
> esmakordsete tarvitajateni narkomaaniaga
> seonduvad karmid tagajärjed ja ränga tegelikkuse.

Sellega tuleb olla väga ettevaatlik, sest esiteks ei pruugi hirmutamine olla tõhus (mujal läbi viidud šokikampaaniate edutus lubab seda oletada) ning kui lastele hirmutamise eesmärgil valetada (mida ametlik uimastipropaganda paraku siiamaani sageli teeb), võib isegi osutuda kontraproduktiivseks.

> Esiteks, naloksooni laiem kasutamine.

Naloksooniprogramm on tõesti kiiduväärt algatus, esimene mõistlik samm Eesti uimastipoliitikas üle aastate. Kui asjast asja saab, siis aplaus! Kahju ainult, et taolise lihtsa lahenduseni jõudmiseks pidid nii paljud surema.

> Narkovastane võitlus on meie selge prioriteet
> ning selleks on 2012. aastaks eraldatud juba
> märkimisväärne hulk täiendavaid vahendeid.

Kui neid kavatsetakse kulutada nagu seni — mittevägivaldsete uimastikurjategijate küttimiseks ja puuritoppimiseks — võib selle rahaga parem Stenbocki maja tapetseerida, pole vähemalt kontraproduktiivne kulutus. Uimastikaristuste karmistamine ja jõustamispingutuste tõhustamine pole mitte kusagil kaasa toonud muud kui uimastihindade tõusu, maffia tulubaasi kasvu, suuremat korruptsiooni ja vägivaldset kuritegevust.

Kui ei usu, saab siit alla laadida viimatise „Count the Costs“-aruande, mis tõstab täpselt ja üksikasjaliselt esile kõiki „soovimatuid tagajärgi“, mida nn sõda uimastitega kaasa toob. On ilmne, et sõjapidamise hind on kordades suurem saavutatud tulemustest. Raport „Count the Costs“ on alla laaditav siit: http://www.countthecosts.org/alternative-world-drug-report

> Äärmiselt olulise mõjuga on kriminaaltulu konfiskeerimine.

Parandus: see võiks olla olulise _kasuliku_ mõjuga, kui oleks kuidagi võimalik vältida selle muutumist politsei täiendava rahastamise vahendiks nagu USA-s, mis omakorda õõnestab ja korrumpeerib politseijõudusid. Keda huvitab, mida see praktikas tähendab, võib vaadata nt seda videot: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hytkAaoF2k

Loodan, et hr minister ja tema aatekaaslased on seda probleemi vaaginud ja välja nuputanud, kuidas pärssida seaduse jõhkrat nuritarvitamist politseiametnike poolt.

> Vaid ennetusega saame murda
> kohati levivat ohtlikku müüti,
> et uimastid on midagi ägedat ja kaif on cool.

Tulutu, sest lastele valetamine ei ole pikas perspektiivis arukas, kuna valel on (eriti interneti-ühiskonnas) väga lühikesed jalad. Minister võiks endale aru anda, et uimasteid ei tarvutata mitte sellepärast, et uimastid on ebameeldivad ja igavad ning kaif on nõme. Tõhus ennetustöö peaks keskenduma uimastitest ägedamate alternatiivide pakkumisele, kahjude kahandamise pingutustele ja teadmistepõhisele uimastiharidusele.

> Samuti peaks noore tarvitaja tabamisel
> algama süsteemne sotsiaaltöö,
> mille sihiks on vältida sõltuvusse langemist.

See oleks tore, kuid enne tuleks täpsustada, milline see süsteemne sotsiaaltöö välja peaks nägema. Sunniviisiline võõrutusravi? Kindlasti mitte, see on pigem kontraproduktiivne.

> Politseieksperdid on koostanud
> keskmise uimastisõltlase profiili,
> mille kohaselt on selleks hilistes kahekümnendates
> meesterahvas, kellel ei ole tööd ja kes omab vaid põhiharidust.

Kas see võib tähendada, et kõrgharidusega, töötavad, 30-sed ja vanemad uimastitarvitajad ei ole sõltlased? Eksperdid muidugi teavad, et nii just ongi — mitte iga tarvitamine pole kuritarvitamine —, aga IRL-i-ministri suust on sellesuunalist vihjet kohata üsna värskendav.

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 11:33

Vahepeal on selgunud, et aliase alt ei tohi P-mehhe postitada, ainult isikunime alt. G-konto probleem paistab aga olevat lahenenud, saab postitada küll.

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 11:44

Muide, head rahvusvahelist uimastite kuritarvitamise ja salakaubanduse vastast päeva kõigile!

Sünge päeva teeb sarkastilisel moel helgemaks Venemaa tipp-narkoametniku idiotism, mida vahendab The Daily Telegraph: uimastite tarvitamises on süüdi ansambel The Beatles! Jevgeni Brjuni arust ei teadnud inimesed alternatiivsetest teadvusseisunditest munnigi, enne kui John, Paul, George ja Ringo need avastasid.

Yevgeny Bryun told a press conference in Moscow that the consequences of the Fab Four's propaganda in the 1960s were still being felt.

"After The Beatles went to expand their consciousness in India ashrams, they introduced that idea – the changing of one's psychic state of mind using drugs – to the population," he said. "When business understood that you could trade on that – on pleasure and goods associated with pleasure – that's probably where it all began." Mr Bryun said tough measures were needed to combat mass culture and advertising which promoted drug use today.

rrrauh
26-06-2012
kell 11:47

super See lugemine tegi küll hommiku lõbusaks.

No Quarter
26-06-2012
kell 11:56

See lugemine tegi küll hommiku lõbusaks.

Täpselt, istusin siin tassi teega ja muhelesin omaette

azad
26-06-2012
kell 12:16

HaraldHaak, sa teed kui tublit ja tänuväärt tood, aga kahjuks ma kardan, et vastavad isikud ei pruugi seda kommentaariumi lugeda ja jäävad sinu küsimuses vastuseta... a ehk ma eksin.

Ehk viitsid oma jutu mingiks arvamusartikliks vormida, usun, et Postimees avaldaks meeleldi ning oleks rohkem avalikku diskussiooni erinevate vaatanurkade poolt.

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 12:17

Vaagisin siin ise ka seda asja, aga ma ei tunne sealt lehest kedagi.

Jrx
26-06-2012
kell 12:17

+1 @ HH seekord. Peaksid ikka poliitikuks hakkama:)

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 12:18

Peaaegu kedagi...

Jrx
26-06-2012
kell 12:21

Keegi siit foorumist ikka kedagi tunneb. Sellist debatti on Eestil vaja!

(ning ahjaa, uimastite vastu aitab SPORT :P)
(srsly, spordikeskkond annab õigel kasutamisel edukogemuse, tunnustuse, kehalise ja vaimse heaolutunde jne)

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 12:25

(srsly, spordikeskkond annab õigel kasutamisel edukogemuse, tunnustuse, kehalise ja vaimse heaolutunde jne)

Olen nõus; lisaks saab spordi abil noortele suhteliselt ohutult tutvustada kanepi mõju. (Link).

rrrauh
26-06-2012
kell 12:25

Seks ka. Aga mõlema, nii spordi kui seksi puhul on sama võimalik tulem - sõltuvus. Kohutav see inimlooma elu ikka...

azad
26-06-2012
kell 12:27

Vaagisin siin ise ka seda asja, aga ma ei tunne sealt lehest kedagi.

Ma ei usu, et selleks kedagi vaja tunda on.

Nad isegi kutsuvad üles kirjutama

Lisaks pole sa sellel teemal ilmselt vähe rohkem kursis olevale inimesele võõras nimi.

HaraldHaak
26-06-2012
kell 16:30

The Daily Beast pajatab legendaarselt välejalgsete tarahumaara indiaanlaste nirust käekäigust Mehhiko uimastisõja jalus.

Villegas-Cruz’s unlikely journey from young athlete to drug mule shows how a little-known tribe, having been catapulted into the limelight by a runaway bestseller, is being ground down by forces out of its control, including Mexico’s all-consuming drug war, a disastrous economy, and an unrelenting drought.

In their native language, Villegas-Cruz’s people call themselves the Rarámuri—the light-footed ones. Their unique physical abilities were largely unknown to the outside world until 2009, when the book Born to Run: A Hidden Tribe, Superathletes, and the Greatest Race the World Has Never Seen made them famous. “When it comes to ultradistances,” author Christopher McDougall wrote, “nothing can beat a Tarahumara runner—not a racehorse, not a cheetah, not an Olympic marathoner.” Among the characters in the book was a Tarahumara champion who once ran 435 miles, and another who won a 100-mile ultramarathon in Leadville, Colo., with almost casual ease. McDougall described the reclusive Tarahumara as “the kindest, happiest people on the planet,” and “benign as Bodhisattvas.” /---/

According to defense lawyers, law-enforcement sources, and some Tarahumara Indians, drug traffickers are now exploiting the very Tarahumara trait—endurance—that has been crucial to their survival. Cartel operatives enlist impoverished Tarahumara Indians to make a grueling odyssey running drugs by foot across the border to the U.S.


Päris pikk lugu on.

nitraM
26-06-2012
kell 20:38

Yana Toom tulistab

Miks mitte kasutada ka n-ö šokivahendeid, mis näitaksid piltlikult ja ausalt, kuidas võib kanepisuitsetaja jõuda paari aastaga prügimäele surema, verine süstal veenis. See on vastik ja julm, aga vähemalt aus.

vaaranguis
26-06-2012
kell 21:27

Mu sõbral on multiplex... täisnime kahjuks ei mäleta hetkel. Haigus on vaikselt progresseerunud 11 a jooksul ja ainus mis talle mõjub leevendavalt on kanepi suitsetamine.

Clarice
26-06-2012
kell 22:23

sclerosis multiplex?

MNaaber
27-06-2012
kell 00:48

Yana Toom tulistab

Miks mitte kasutada ka n-ö šokivahendeid, mis näitaksid piltlikult ja ausalt, kuidas võib kanepisuitsetaja jõuda paari aastaga prügimäele surema, verine süstal veenis. See on vastik ja julm, aga vähemalt aus.


noshit

MNaaber
27-06-2012
kell 00:49

Kõik me teame, et koledad pildid suitsupakkidel on pannud suitsetajate arvu kahanema. Ikka hirmutada ja karistada, see on õige tee.

Clarice
27-06-2012
kell 01:06

lege idioodi arvamus, et kanepisuitsetajad varem või hiljem nõela otsas lõpetavad.

HaraldHaak
27-06-2012
kell 09:23

lege idioodi arvamus, et kanepisuitsetajad varem või hiljem nõela otsas lõpetavad.

Mõned lõpetavadki ju. Lihtsalt -- lahendus pole sellest lastele rääkida nagu täiesti vältimatust allakäigutrepist. Aga see selleks; Toomi jt jutu juurde pöördun ilmselt varsti tagasi.

Seniks lugemist.

2012 World Drug Report launched as General Assembly debates impact of drugs and crime on development. Allalaadimislink on ka samas. (Ja Kenti ülikooli uimastipoliitika ekspert kirjutab, miks raport pakule pihta ei saa.)

Count the Costs'i alternatiivset raportit ma eelpool juba mainisin, aga igaks juhuks lisan siia ka (PDF-i allalaadimislink on samal lehel).

Lisaks üllitas oma eriaruande HIV-i leviku ja uimastisõja seostest eile uimastipoliitika globaalkomisjon GCDP; [urll=]pressiteade on siin[/url], PDF-i alla saab laadida siit.

HaraldHaak
27-06-2012
kell 09:23

Aargh. GCDP pressiteade: http://www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/hivaids-pandemic/

HaraldHaak
27-06-2012
kell 09:30

UNODC-i aruande jaoks on parem ja kokkuvõtlikum link ilmselt hoopis see: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/WDR-2012.html

vaaranguis
27-06-2012
kell 10:00

@ Clarice jah, see sama nimi tõesti

vaaranguis
27-06-2012
kell 10:04

Ps. ja mees väidab, et kui ta piipu teeb, siis on kergem selle haigusega kaasnevaid vaegusi taluda. See muidugi ei tähenda, et ta sel moel ennast ravib, kuid tundes inimest üsna hästi ja olles kursis ka tema varasema suhtumisega kanepisse jms ( see oli eitav), siis mul pole põhjust tema jutus kahelda.

Jrx
27-06-2012
kell 10:12

Seks ka. Aga mõlema, nii spordi kui seksi puhul on sama võimalik tulem - sõltuvus. Kohutav see inimlooma elu ikka...

Arvestades harrastajate arvu on kliiniliselt määratletava sõltuvusena käsitlevatavasse langemise % ikka äärmiselt väike:)

HaraldHaak
27-06-2012
kell 10:20

Sclerosis multiplex'i, eesti keeles hulgiskleroosi kohta paar linki, mis on siit küll minevikus juba läbi käinud:

http://kanepitemp.wordpress.com/2012/05/30/kanepi-narkootiline-mojuaine-ei-parsi-hulgiskleroosi-kulgu/

http://kanepitemp.wordpress.com/2010/02/20/tipptaseme-teadusuuringud-toestavad-kanepi-meditsiinilist-ohutust-ja-tohusat-toimet/

http://forte.delfi.ee/news/teadus/article.php?id=31830555

vaaranguis
27-06-2012
kell 11:18

Muide, kas kanepitaime seemnete müük on ka kriminaalkorras karistatav? St tegu on ju saadusega mille manustamisel suukaudu või suitsetades ei ole võimalik narkojoovet saavutada...

HaraldHaak
27-06-2012
kell 11:22

Muide, kas kanepitaime seemnete müük on ka kriminaalkorras karistatav? St tegu on ju saadusega mille manustamisel suukaudu või suitsetades ei ole võimalik narkojoovet saavutada...

Seemnete müük riigi piires ei ole ilmselt illegaalne, kuna idanemisvõimelisi kanepiseemneid saab osta poest ja veebist. Tõsi, ka neist kasvatatud esimene-teine põlvkond taimi pole tõenäoliselt narkootilised. Päris uima-taime aretamine võtab kolm-neli põlvkonda kasvatamist ja aretamist, mis ilma eriloata peaks olema karistatav.

Kanepiseemnete tellimine-toomine välismaalt peaks küll olema seadusevastane.

HaraldHaak
27-06-2012
kell 11:27

Cracked'i eilses loos "Kuus kõige pentsikumat tegurit, mis paistavad statistiliselt kuritegevust kahandavat" leiavad ootuspäraselt mainimist ka uimastituru fluktuatsioonid.

#5. Crack Cocaine Scaring Everyone Straight /---/

You have to keep in mind that plummeting crime rates are falling off from highs reached thanks to the crack epidemic -- this sudden invasion of an impossibly addictive yet dirt cheap drug caused homicide, robbery and drug arrests to explode in the mid-'80s. But then the rates suddenly started plummeting in 1991, and kept going down. While that's good news for everyone, it's also kind of baffling. Crack is as addictive as ... well, crack. Wouldn't it just keep spreading like a disease until every inner city neighborhood is full of addicts? What stopped it?

Apparently, crackheads did. That is, the fear of becoming one. A pair of researchers in New York say that crack fell out of popularity because its effects on people are freaking terrifying, even to other drug users. Pot brings up the pleasant image of comfy couches and junk food. Alcohol calls up crowded bars and raucous house parties. You can even convince yourself that heroin and powder cocaine are glamorous, thanks to their use among rich rock stars and actors. But crack? It pretty much just makes you think of constantly broke, malnourished junkies offering oral sex to their dealer in exchange for one more hit.

So, the idea is that a lot of the potential market for the drug saw how rapidly it turned people into shrunken zombies, and backed slowly away in horror. They then switched back to pot, which in addition to not turning you into a crackhead also doesn't spawn the same kind of brutal turf wars and desperate, violent users. When the crack left, so did the attendant handguns and robberies that served to feed all those crack habits. Inner city crime plunged and snack food industry profits soared.

"But wait," you say. "What about meth? I've seen Breaking Bad, there are more people doing drugs now than ever! And killing each other for it!"

Well, the thing is ...

#4. There Is Suddenly Plenty of Drugs for Everyone

It's perfectly natural to think "More drugs = more crime." Illegal drugs are, by definition, sold by criminals. More drugs equals more criminals, which equals more crime, right? But it's not that simple.

People kill each other over drugs for the same reason they kill each other over oil, or diamonds: because they're worth a huge amount of money. In 1988, the cocaine trade was worth an estimated $140 billion. If that doesn't drive home how blow-crazy America was during the late '80s, we'll put it another way: Cocaine was worth 2 percent of the entire U.S. GDP. And only, like, a third of that can be pinned on Robin Williams. At around the same time, America's murder rate reached its highest level in recorded history -- and almost none of that can be blamed on Robin Williams.

But when the mid-'90s rolled around, coke dropped in value faster than hammer pants. By 1994, the price of blow was at its lowest point ever and, holy shit would you look at that, the murder rate dropped by 50 percent as well.

This baffled the DEA, who'd been busting coke dealers left and right in the hopes of making the drug less accessible (and thus more expensive). But it appears that all they actually succeeded in doing was forcing drug lords to smuggle smarter and diversify. Then in came meth, which anybody can make in their garage for a few bucks, and a new jump in popularity for pain pills. And, if high school economics taught us anything besides how to sleep with our eyes open, it's that introducing more choice into a market lowers prices.

That means that, suddenly, the profit margins for street-level dealers really started to ... blow. So-called "minimum wage dealers" made as little as 50 bucks a month, which probably isn't enough to shoot someone over, and sure as hell isn't worth taking a bullet over. Turf wars disappeared, violent crime rates dropped, poor cocaine found itself relegated to the bargain bin and addicts suddenly had extra cash to spend on ... well, probably more drugs.

This does not, obviously, mean that the key to utopia is to create a world where the very streets are paved with meth. It just appears that such a world would feature fewer drive-by shootings.

HaraldHaak
27-06-2012
kell 11:29

Forte vahendab GCDP aruande teemalist uudist.

Globaalne uimastikomisjon: sõda uimastitega on soodustanud HIV-pandeemiat

Globaalne uimastipoliitika komisjon GCDP kritiseeris riike, mis vangistavad mittevägivaldseid uimastitarvitajaid ja neid avalikest tervishoiuteenustest eemale peletavad, vahendab Birmingham Maili põhjal Kanepitemp.

Aruandes pealkirjaga "Sõda uimastitega ja HIV/AIDS: kuidas uimastipruukimise kriminaliseerimine õhutab globaalset pandeemiat" (The War on Drugs and HIV/AIDS — How the Criminalisation of Drug Use Fuels the Global Pandemic; PDF, 24 lk) mõistab komisjon hukka uimastiseaduseid jõustavate poliitiliste meetmete märkimisväärset edutust uimastipakkumise pärssimisel kogu maailmas.

Komisjon osutas, et heroiini ja muude illegaalsete opioidide pakkumine on kogu maailmas viimastel kümnenditel kasvanud rohkem kui 380 protsenti.

Aruande autorid tunnustavad sõltuvust tervishoiuprobleemina käsitlevaid riikide nagu Austraalia, Portugal ja Šveits, kus uimastikasutajate HIV-nakatumus on peaaegu nulli viidud.

Teravad kriitikanooled on suunatud aga selliste riikide poole nagu Ameerika Ühendriigid, Hiina, Venemaa ja Tai, kus teaduslike tõendite eiramine ja tõenduspõhistele HIV-ennetusprogrammidele vastutöötamine on tekitanud praeguse katastroofilise olukorra.

Komisjoni liikmed rõhutasid ka uimastisõja soodsat mõju organiseeritud kuritegevuse kasvule ning näitasid üksipulgi, kuidas uimastisõda on HIV-i ülemaailmsele levikule kaasa aidanud.

Autorid väitsid, et hirm vahistamise ees on ajanud uimastikasutajad põranda alla kõrge riskiastmega keskkondadesse, eemale HIV-testimisest ja ennetusteenustest.

Steriilsete süstalde kättesaadavuse piiramine uimastikasutajatele on soodustanud süstalde ühiskasutust, lisasid komisjoni liikmed.

Samuti rõhutasid nad, et tõestatult tõhusatesse HIV-ennetusstarteegiatesse panustamise asemel raisatakse niigi nappe ühiskondlikke ressursse kahjulike ja mittetulemuslike uimastiseaduste jõustamise pingutustele.

vaaranguis
27-06-2012
kell 14:09

http://arvamus.postimees.ee/889404/mart-kalvet-eesti-erakondade-uimastipoliitika-nokk-kinni-saba-kinni

azad
27-06-2012
kell 14:13

Mart, hea kirjatükk. welldone!

azad
27-06-2012
kell 14:14

hah, jokuta veel postitamisega. mõte muidugi jääb.

HaraldHaak
27-06-2012
kell 16:02

Aitäh; ma ei tea, kas see oleks ilmunud, kui Sa poleks siin P-mehe arvamustoimetuse meiliaadressile tähelepanu juhtinud, nii et ise oled "süüdi".

Jrx
27-06-2012
kell 21:43

Sir, I salute you!

vaaranguis
27-06-2012
kell 22:39

http://www.high-supplies.com/catalog/index.php Mida sellisest asjast arvata? esti lippu nähes tekkis küsimus, et huvitav, kuidas käib delikaatne kättetoimetamine... Lisaks oli jutt, mis õpetas päris detailselt vastava saaduse kasvatamist...

Standort
28-06-2012
kell 03:30

Sir, I salute you!

pray

HaraldHaak
29-06-2012
kell 12:36

Uimastikurjategijaid tihtiligu demonstratiivselt oksa tõmbava Iraani asepresident teab, kes on uimastikaubanduses tegelikult süüdi. Muidugi juudid! ([url=http://www.wral.com/news/national_world/world/story/11261737/]WRAL.com[/uro] <- AP)

Iran's semi-official FARS news agency reported that Rahimi on Tuesday said the prevalence of narcotics and drug-addiction throughout the world finds its roots in the erroneous teachings of the Talmud, one of the Jewish Holy books.

"The book teaches them how to destroy non-Jews so as to protect an embryo in the womb of a Jewish mother," Rahimi stated.

The Iranian vice-president said that the Zionists' direct involvement in the prevalence of illicit drugs is such that "you cannot find a single addict among the Zionists".

HaraldHaak
29-06-2012
kell 12:37

Raisk. Link uuesti: http://www.wral.com/news/national_world/world/story/11261737/

HaraldHaak
29-06-2012
kell 12:41

Midagi retrokujundusfriikidele: fotod plärupaberipakenditest.

P.S. Kanepi suitsetamine, eriti tubakaga koos, on kõige ebatervislikum manustamisviis.

HaraldHaak
29-06-2012
kell 12:48

Endistest natsifolk-lapsstaaridest õekesed Lynx ja Lamb (Prussian Blue) on jälle kollase meedia fookuses, seekord The Mirroris.

They appear to have turned from fascist, anti-immigration hate-mongers into laid-back liberals celebrating the joys of ethnic diversity and spreading a message of peace and love.

After escaping the all-controlling clutches of their mother, April, and battling serious health problems, Lynx and Lamb, now 20, say they have swapped their Hitler youth for a happy hippy lifestyle.

And, like so many other pop star transformations, the Gaede twins appear to have been helped along their journey of “enlightenment” by smoking a lot of marijuana. /---/

At 15 Lynx was diagnosed with cancer and had a large tumour removed from her shoulder.

She also developed a rare ­condition called cyclic vomiting syndrome.

Lamb suffered from scoliosis of the spine and chronic back pain, which led to emotional problems.

After various drugs failed to help either of them they were both prescribed medical marijuana – and say it changed their lives. /---/

"We spent most of our days up on the hill playing with our goats. But, I have to say, marijuana saved my life.

"I’d probably be dead if I didn’t have it. It also rekindled the creative impulses I once channelled into my music.”

vaaranguis
01-07-2012
kell 09:51

Ja milline on kõige tervislikuim kanepi manustamisviis? ;)

HaraldHaak
01-07-2012
kell 14:45

Aurutamine (vaporiseerimine) väikeste annuste manustamiseks, söömine või tinktuuri joomine suurte annuste manustamiseks — nagu arst ette kitjutab. Sativexi manustatakse suu limaskestale pihustades, on ka täiesti ohutu.

Trash
01-07-2012
kell 21:40

Aurutamine (vaporiseerimine) väikeste annuste manustamiseks, söömine või tinktuuri joomine suurte annuste manustamiseks — nagu arst ette kitjutab. Sativexi manustatakse suu limaskestale pihustades, on ka täiesti ohutu.

Snoop! You're doing it wrong!

vaaranguis
02-07-2012
kell 09:44

Tänase päevalehe üks anektoodidest: Vanamees viskas mõrgu merre ja tõmbas selle siis välja. Võrk oli otsast otsani mererohtu täis. Vanamees suitsetas rohu ära ja edasi läks kõik nagu muinasjutus: rääkivad kalad, täidetud soovid...

vaaranguis
02-07-2012
kell 09:45

mõrgu-võrgu...

HaraldHaak
02-07-2012
kell 11:17

Kolumbia kavatseb dekriminaliseerida kanepi ja kokaiini omamise, vahendab Toke.

Colombia's Constitutional Court on Friday approved the government's proposal to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of cocaine and marijuana for personal use. Anyone caught with less than 20 grams of marijuana or one gram of cocaine for personal use may receive physical or psychological treatment depending on their "state of consumption," but may not be prosecuted or detained, the court ruled.

HaraldHaak
02-07-2012
kell 11:21

David Nutt postuleerib oma blogis hüpoteetilise alternatiivi: teaduspõhise uimastitpoliitika mudeli.

I strongly believe that we should focus on public health approaches to the drug problem, and decriminalise the possession of drugs for personal use, for the following simple reason;- If users are addicted then they are ill, and criminal sanctions are an inappropriate way to deal with an illness. If they are not addicted then criminalisation will almost always lead to greater harms to the user than the effects of the drug. For example, it can severely limit career options in public service and prevent travel to some countries particularly the USA.

However, it was clear from questions from several of the HASC committee that they are very frightened that reducing or removing the criminal penalties for drug possession will lead to greater use – and then greater harms overall. This is a reasonable hypothesis. Forming hypotheses represents the first step in thinking scientifically. Next, we should test the hypothesis against the available evidence. I think that the following evidence allows us to reject this hypothesis.

1. There is good evidence that decriminalisation does not radically increase drug use and can reduce some measures of harm, as shown by a balanced review of the first ten years of the Portugal experience of decriminalisation. /---/

2. An increase in the availability of some drugs may actually lead to a reduction in the use of other more harmful drugs, so reducing net harms to society. /---/

3. Regulating access to drugs such as cannabis as in the Dutch model reduces the need for users to go to dealers. So it minimises their exposure to people whose main goal is to get their clients onto the most addictive substances such as heroin and crack. /---/

4. Approaches to dealing with addicted users which swap punishment for healthcare have been successful. /---/

5. Approaches which explicitly reject an evidence-based public health approach, but instead focus on incarceration and criminalisation of addicts, continue to utterly fail, at enormous financial and human cost. /---/

6. Treating addicts with more humanity doesn’t make drug use look more appealing. /---/

Moreover criminalisation produces many perverse consequences that actually increase the harms of drugs and costs to society. /---/

It is now time to begin to introduce a more rational evidence-based approach to drug policy to minimise harms. We must consider all drugs, including alcohol, as part of the problem to be tackled. I hope that the Select Committee will recommend a more progressive approach than the current one of interdiction and punishment which has, and will continue to fail.

HaraldHaak
03-07-2012
kell 11:15

The Guardiani interaktiivne infograafik näitab selgelt, et Island on Eestist narkosurmade poolest ees. Milline häbi!

The World Drugs report for 2012 is published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and is full of fascinating stats - we've extracted some of the key ones for you in this visualisation, created by Andy Cotgreave of Tableau. Click on the map to see how drug use changes around the world

HaraldHaak
03-07-2012
kell 11:17

NORML teatab The Open Neurology Journalis ilmunud uurimusest, kus väidetakse, et kanepi lahterdamine samasse rühma tugevatoimeliste, ohtlike ja meditsiiniliselt kõlbmatute ainetega ei ole mõistlik.

“Evidence is accumulating that cannabinoids may be useful medicine for certain indications. Control of nausea and vomiting and the promotion of weight gain in chronic inanition are already licensed uses of oral THC (dronabinol capsules). Recent research indicates that cannabis may also be effective in the treatment of painful peripheral neuropathy and muscle spasticity from conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Other indications have been proposed, but adequate clinical trials have not been conducted.

“… The classification of marijuana as a Schedule I drug as well as the continuing controversy as to whether or not cannabis is of medical value are obstacles to medical progress in this area. Based on evidence currently available the Schedule I classification is not tenable; it is not accurate that cannabis has no medical value, or that information on safety is lacking. It is true cannabis has some abuse potential, but its profile more closely resembles drugs in Schedule III (where codeine and dronabinol are listed). The continuing conflict between scientific evidence and political ideology will hopefully be reconciled in a judicious manner.” /---/

Under federal law, schedule I controlled substances are defined as possessing “a high potential for abuse, … no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and there is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.” Heroin and Methaqualone (Quaaludes) are examples of other Schedule I substances.

HaraldHaak
03-07-2012
kell 11:19

Igas olukorras ei ole jumalasõnast abi, vahendab KATV.com AP uudist Austraaliast.

Two men are charged in Izard County for their alleged roles in a scheme to use a Bible to smuggle illegal narcotics into the county jail.

Sheriff Lawrence Tate said Monday that 23-year-old Brandon Joe "BJ" Gillaspie hid hydromorphone pills inside the lining of a Bible cover and used a third party to bring the book to 23-year-old Jeffrey Chase Moser, who was already locked up.

HaraldHaak
03-07-2012
kell 11:21

Meestearst-kolumnist veebikohas Ask Men annab nõu, et seksuaalelu elavdamine metamfetamiiniga ei ole mõistlik.

For a lot of people, having sex while high is a rush that sober sex has a hard time matching. We get different rushes from sex while drinking alcohol or using marijuana, ecstasy, meth, etc. That’s part of what drugs do: get you in a euphoric, altered state that’s different than sobriety. That doesn’t necessarily mean sober sex can’t be enjoyed in an altered, euphoric state.

While there are plenty of reasons people use meth for sex, the risks far outweigh those reasons. Meth users are more likely to make impulsive sexual decisions, such as having unprotected sex, and are three times more likely to contract HIV than men who don’t use crystal. There’s also “crystal dick,” which many men experience (trouble with erection), and difficulty reaching orgasm and ejaculation. Combine that with the countless medical side effects, ranging from heart, blood pressure and circulatory issues to brain effects such as possible psychosis or Parkinsonian-like side effects, and this doesn’t sound like fun in the long run.

HaraldHaak
04-07-2012
kell 09:37

The Guardian vahendab UK justiitsministri avaldust: sõda uimastitega on igati nurjunud ning võib uimastiprobleemi suurendada, mis aga ei tähenda veel, et sellest peaks loobuma.

Britain is "plainly losing the war on drugs" and may even be going backwards, the justice secretary, Ken Clarke, has acknowledged to MPs.

But he insisted this was no reason for despair and politicians had to keep on trying to curb a problem that would not be solved by decriminalisation. /---/

"I have not reached the stage of that blinding insight about exactly how we are going to improve our record, is the honest truth," he said. "We have been engaged in a war on drugs for more than 30 years. We are plainly losing it. We have not achieved very much progress. The same problems come round and round.

"But I do not despair – we keep trying every method we can to get on top of what's one of the worst social problems for the country and the biggest single cause of crime."

He acknowledged the existing criminal law was not working.

"We are all disappointed by the fact that, far from making progress, it could be argued we are going backwards at times. But my own personal view is that I would be worried about losing the deterrent effect of criminalisation of youngsters who start experimenting … One thing that does put them off is that they would get into trouble with the police."


Minister ei viita andmetele, mis kinnitaksid tema hüpoteesi, et politseiga hirmutamine noori uimastitest eemale peletab — tõenäoliselt sellepärast, et taoliseid andmeid pole lihtsalt olemas.

HaraldHaak
04-07-2012
kell 09:38

Noortest rääkides: suvel eksperimenteeritakse kõiksugu ainetega rohkem, hoiatab Medical Xpress.

More teenagers start drinking and smoking cigarettes and marijuana in June and July than in any other months, U.S. health officials say.

HaraldHaak
04-07-2012
kell 09:43

IDPC Christopher Hallam vahendab Talking Drugs'is muljeid mais toimunud uimastisõdalaste rahvusvaheliselt ringkäenduskonverentsilt.

An IDPC representative joined the curious mix of people who gravitated to the event: a sprinkling of those making a career out of fortifying the drug prohibition industry; a selection of familiar drug war zealots; and some individuals, probably very well-intentioned, there to support treatment and prevention.

The prevailing mood was one of bewilderment, anger and resentment, summed up by Victor Ivanov as he railed against the 'locomotive of the global drug legalisation movement’ whose objective is to 'legalise transnational organised crime' (sic). Russia’s treatment system is notoriously harsh and patently ineffective, but Ivanov was, philosophically speaking, on home territory here, and nobody was going to interfere, even in the name of basic conceptual coherence. The attendees were characterised by a kind of bunker mentality, being quite convinced that they face a shadowy network of well-armed billionaires determined to distort the evidence and lead the public pied-piper style into a maelstrom of addiction and misery.

Nonetheless, the organisation’s own attitude toward evidence is ambivalent at best. ‘Drug policies are too important to be left to drug experts,’ opined WFAD president Sven Olov Carlsson, who also announced that the Russian representation was ‘especially welcome’. /---/

Four overall themes emerged as the weapons with which the WFAD plans to counter the machinations of George Soros and his fellow super villains.

1. Use the language of human rights, which has up to now been commandeered by the harm reduction lobby.
2. Talk to the public about children, especially the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
3. Addiction is a 'chemical slavery'.
4. The opposition is rich.

There was no new research, no examples, other than the Swedish, in which repressive prohibition has succeeded; the sole argument made was that 'drug legalisation' would make things even worse. The IDPC representative left with the impression that these people were obsessed with harm reductionists and legalisers, whom they believe are actively seeking to increase drug use. It was difficult to credit, listening in to the discussions of this angry and confused subculture, that almost all the world's governments agree with them.

HaraldHaak
04-07-2012
kell 09:46

Drug Free America Foundation keeldub uskumast uurimust, mis näitab, et laste peksmine suurendab uimastite kuritarvitamise riski hilisemas elus.

I think this is a bunch of baloney. If it were true, more than 75% of my generation would be a total mess. When I grew up, everyone got spanked by parents, grandparents, and even teachers….. And we had far fewer kids out of control.

But then again, maybe I’m crazy and just don’t know it………


Maskide langemise aeg...

HaraldHaak
04-07-2012
kell 09:51

The Fix'is kirjutab Nic Sheff, et mitte igaüks ei vaja karskust.

It really sucked to admit that those counselors had been right, that this addiction thing was literally killing me. And while it still made no sense to me, I began to accept that alcoholism truly was a disease—and a mental illness—and that I had it.

Somehow I’d crossed over an invisible line and there was no going back. In AA the expression I heard was “Once a cucumber becomes a pickle, it can never be a cucumber again.” That certainly was the way it worked for me. No matter how hard I tried, I was incapable of drinking or using casually.

And, once I’d learned that I was like that, I guess I just figured every other addict was like that, too. That is, after all, what all those counselors had told me—and it had turned out that they were right.

So when I’d be in outpatient meeting or at some treatment center with someone who was still trying to drink or use casually after having gotten clean off hard drugs, I would shake my head and pity them, knowing that they, too would eventually have to find out what I had: that once you are an addict, you are an addict forever—and with every substance.

I even found myself slightly arrogant in the way I judged those addicts around me who still felt like they’d be able to drink or use after getting clean. Someone would tell me, “I’ve been doing really well but I do have a glass of wine with dinner every once in a while” and I’d think, “You idiot, in a month you’re gonna be licking the tiles of a public bathroom floor because you think you spilled some of your crystal on it.” (Something I had done on several occasions). I was disdainful of addicts about what I saw as their denial. And my AA friends and I would cut off or ostracize anyone we knew who started trying to casually drink or use again.

But more recently, I’ve begun to see that addiction may not be quite as black and white. See, my dad, David Sheff, has been writing this new book called Clean: 12 New Steps to Understanding Addiction and I’ve been doing some research to help him by interviewing different addicts down in LA to record their various stories of recovery.

Going into it, I figured that most of the stories would be like mine. But in interviewing these different addicts—addicts that have worked with some of the top addiction specialists in the country—I was surprised to find that quite a few of them have now, after an extended period of abstinence, been able to go back to drinking or smoking pot casually without spiraling out of control again.

It was a baffling revelation to me. /---/

All this has led me to believe what I never believed before: that, indeed, there is a difference between a true addict and someone who uses drugs or alcohol to cope with a specific situation and ends up becoming dependent on them during that period of time.

Serial K
04-07-2012
kell 17:51

tuttava tuttav teeb keskkooli uurimustööd ja kogub tuttava-tuttava-tuttavat kogemusi 4-kloro-2,5-dimetoksüamfetamiiniga (DOC). mis vist on legaalne enivei, nii et jagage muljeid.

HaraldHaak
05-07-2012
kell 09:16

Hüsteeriapunumine idanaabri moodi: CNS News vahendab AP teadet, mille kohaselt Venemaa juhtiv võõrutusraviärikas kardab hiirt ja kardab rotti, kardab nurgas jahukotti, vabandust, kardab kohutavat sünteetilist uimastit "spice", millest enne neerude ja aju lahustumist või nälgasuremist loobuda on vaat' et võimatu.

Russia's leading anti-drug crusader says the abuse of synthetic marijuana is turning into a "horrible" epidemic in his country.

Experts say a range of hallucinogens known as "spice" are very hard to kick, and addicts lose sleep, weight and get kidney and brain disorders from them.

Evgeny Roizman, who spoke Wednesday, heads a rehabilitation clinic in the central city of Ekaterinburg.

HaraldHaak
05-07-2012
kell 09:22

NY Times'i majandusajakirjanik on "õigeid" numbreid takseerinud ja leiab, et need näitavad uimastisõja täielikku nurjumist peaaegu igal rindel (v.a poliitilisel).

When policy makers in Washington worry about Mexico these days, they think in terms of a handful of numbers: Mexico’s 19,500 hectares devoted to poppy cultivation for heroin; its 17,500 hectares growing cannabis; the 95 percent of American cocaine imports brought by Mexican cartels through Mexico and Central America.

They are thinking about the wrong numbers. If there is one number that embodies the seemingly intractable challenge imposed by the illegal drug trade on the relationship between the United States and Mexico, it is $177.26. That is the retail price, according to Drug Enforcement Administration data, of one gram of pure cocaine from your typical local pusher. That is 74 percent cheaper than it was 30 years ago.

This number contains pretty much all you need to evaluate the Mexican and American governments’ “war” to eradicate illegal drugs from the streets of the United States. They would do well to heed its message. What it says is that the struggle on which they have spent billions of dollars and lost tens of thousands of lives over the last four decades has failed. /---/

[C]onceived to eradicate the illegal drug market, the war on drugs cannot be won. Once they understand this, the Mexican and American governments may consider refocusing their strategies to take aim at what really matters: the health and security of their citizens, communities and nations.

Prices match supply with demand. If the supply of an illicit drug were to fall, say because the Drug Enforcement Administration stopped it from reaching the nation’s shores, we should expect its price to go up.

That is not what happened with cocaine. Despite billions spent on measures from spraying coca fields high in the Andes to jailing local dealers in Miami or Washington, a gram of cocaine cost about 16 percent less last year than it did in 2001. The drop is similar for heroin and methamphetamine. The only drug that has not experienced a significant fall in price is marijuana. /---/

[T]he government has spent $20 billion to $25 billion a year on counternarcotics efforts over the last decade. That is a pretty high price tag for political cover, to stop drugs from becoming a prominent issue on voters’ radar screen. It becomes unacceptably high if you add in the real costs of the drug wars. That includes more than 55,000 Mexicans and tens of thousands of Central Americans killed by drug-fueled violence /---/

A war on drugs whose objective is to eradicate the drug market — to stop drugs from arriving in the United States and stop Americans from swallowing, smoking, inhaling or injecting them — is a war that cannot be won.

HaraldHaak
05-07-2012
kell 09:26

Taste of Country vahendab ajakirjast Mojo startinud WENNi uudist: Willie Nelsonil on lihtne lahendus probleemile, et tulevast aastast alates Hollandis võib-olla enam välismaalastele kanepit ei müüda — tuleb Hollandis üürida või osta maja!

[T]he pro-pot singer is smartly planning to either rent or purchase a home in the Netherlands in the next year so he can continue to buy marijuana legally. /---/

When Mojo magazine (quotes courtesy of WENN) asked the singer if he would boycott the region due to this radical change in its policy, he dismissed it, saying, No. I’ll just rent me an apartment when I go over there so I’ll be a resident. Or if I have to, I’ll buy a place.”

HaraldHaak
09-07-2012
kell 09:13

Ketamiin võib osutuda tõhusaks depressiooniravimiks ja suitsiidiennetiks, kirjeldab psühhofarmakoloogilist paradigmanihet Bloomberg News.

The former academic’s experience is part of broader tests to determine whether ketamine, a hallucinogen commonly used to anesthetize horses, can offer a new avenue for relieving the low mood and self-esteem and feelings of hopelessness that plague as many as 121 million people worldwide.

“This could really be a game-changer,” said James W. Murrough, an assistant professor in the departments of psychiatry and neuroscience at New York’s Mount Sinai School of Medicine, which has several ketamine studies under way. “There is a real need for something that works quickly.” /---/

Now that doctors have a better grasp of how the brain works, they’re realizing their colleagues in the 1950s and early 1960s were on to something. Pharmaceutical companies are interested as well. London-based AstraZeneca Plc (AZN) and a unit of New Brunswick, New Jersey-based Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) have drugs in mid-stage patient studies designed to work in a similar way, but with better results.

Animal tests show ketamine promotes the growth of brain nerve-cells and their connections that are the cornerstones of learning and memory. Scientists are trying to see if the compound has the same dramatic effect in severely depressed and suicidal people. The research has already shed new light on the biological mechanisms of depression. /---/

Ketamine may help patients who don’t respond to conventional antidepressants, such as Eli Lilly & Co. (LLY)’s Cymbalta or H. Lundbeck A/S’s Lexapro, which don’t work on about a third of those who try them, says Alana Simorellis, an analyst with Decision Resources Inc. in Waltham, Massachusetts. It may also benefit people who need urgent relief from suicidal tendencies, so long as the drug is given under the supervision of doctors in a hospital, she said. /---/

Ketamine targets brain receptors activated by a transmitter called glutamate that’s important for synapses -- the electrical and chemical signaling neurons use to communicate. Their activation in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex -- areas of the brain involved in memory, mood and cognition -- are thought to be especially important in treating depression.

Antidepressants including Prozac also cause changes in synapses, though not as quickly as ketamine, said Murrough. It may be speed that gives ketamine an advantage for depression, which has been linked with alterations and abnormalities in glutamate levels, he said.

HaraldHaak
09-07-2012
kell 09:16

Hüppelauateooria on viimaks ometi tõestamist leidnud — tuleb välja, et mõnede inimeste hilisemat riskantset uimastikäitumist võib tõesti soodustada ühe teise uimasti eelnev tarbimine. Selleks uimastiks olla etanool, vahendab Raw Story.

A study in the August edition of The Journal of School Health finds that the generations old theory of a “gateway drug” effect is in fact accurate for some drug users, but shifts the blame for those addicts’ escalating substance abuse away from marijuana and onto the most pervasive and socially accepted drug in American life: alcohol.

Using a nationally representative sample from the University of Michigan’s annual Monitoring the Future survey, the study blasts holes in drug war orthodoxy wide enough to drive a truck through, definitively proving that marijuana use is not the primary indicator of whether a person will move on to more dangerous substances.

“By delaying the onset of alcohol initiation, rates of both licit substance abuse like tobacco and illicit substance use like marijuana and other drugs will be positively affected, and they’ll hopefully go down,” study co-author Adam E. Barry, an assistant professor at the University of Florida’s Department of Health Education & Behavior, told Raw Story in an exclusive interview.

While Barry’s study shows evidence that substance abuse behaviors can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy by examining a subject’s drug history, he believes that the persistent and misguided notion of marijuana as the primary gateway to more harmful substances went awry because its creators — who called it the “Stepping Stone Hypothesis” in the “Reefer Madness” era of the 1930s – fundamentally misread the data and failed to conduct an adequate follow-up.

“Some of these earlier iterations needed to be fleshed out,” Barry said. “That’s why we wanted to study this. The latest form of the gateway theory is that it begins with [marijuana] and moves on finally to what laypeople often call ‘harder drugs.’ As you can see from the findings of our study, it confirmed this gateway hypothesis, but it follows progression from licit substances, specifically alcohol, and moves on to illicit substances.”

“So, basically, if we know what someone says with regards to their alcohol use, then we should be able to predict what they respond to with other [drugs],” he explained. “Another way to say it is, if we know someone has done [the least prevalent drug] heroin, then we can assume they have tried all the others.”

And while that standardized progression certainly doesn’t fit every single drug user, the study took that into account too. “There were a low enough number of errors that you are able to accurately predict [future substance abuse behavior]… with about 92 percent accuracy,” Barry said.

HaraldHaak
09-07-2012
kell 09:20

AlterNet kirjutab pikemalt ÜRO uimastikontrolli lepingute rangusest USA võtmes, aga lugeda kõlbab seda ka teistel.

To better understand how nations set their policies, it is essential to understand the international underpinnings. To this end, the New York City Bar Association’s Committee on Drugs & the Law formed a special subcommittee to study the implications of international law on domestic drug policy reform. We travelled to Vienna to attend the yearly sessions of the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs in 2011 and 2012, and interviewed current and former diplomats and dignitaries working at the international level of drug control, in order to gain an understanding of the worldwide drug control system and its implications for domestic drug policy.

We found that, while everyone seems to have an opinion on drug reform, many of the legal analyses are limited in scope to domestic factors. Missing from even the most sophisticated analysis conducted in the U.S. is a discussion about the international legal system – as embodied in the three international drug control treaties. Through our work, we have grown to understand the vast importance of these treaties in the world of international relations, as well as to domestic drug reform. /---/

If the treaties are so counter-productive, and there is no real enforcement, then why does almost every country in the world remain signatory to and, for the most part, faithfully comply with them? Perhaps pressure from the United States (and fear of losing aid) is a major factor. But many experts point to the reputational aspect of international law: many countries do not want to be seen as uncooperative – in effect, “pariahs” – in the international community.

Many countries have reacted over the years by pushing the outer limits of what is technically allowable, or by broadly interpreting the language of the treaties. The treaties themselves allow a certain amount of flexibility in their interpretation. For example, while the 1988 Convention requires that countries make possession for personal consumption a criminal violation, the treaty does not specify what the punishment must be. Portugal’s “decriminalization” laws take advantage of this grey area /---/

These measures – non-enforcement, decriminalization/depenalization, and medicalization– are known as “soft” challenges to the treaties. Until recently, the only challenges to the treaties have been “soft” challenges.

That is, until the Bolivian coca leaf reservation. /---/

This move by Bolivia is extremely significant in that it is the first “hard” challenge to the treaties in the history of UN drug control. It is also particularly significant to many in the U.S. as it may very well open the door to another “hard” challenge: marijuana regulation in the United States.

HaraldHaak
09-07-2012
kell 09:23

Release tutvustab uut kogumikku, mis kirjeldab uimastite dekriminaliseerimise mudeleid mitmel pool maailmas.

'A Quiet Revolution: Drug Decriminalisation Policies in Practice Across the Globe' is the first report to support Release's campaign 'Drugs - It’s Time for Better Laws'. This report looks at over 20 countries that have adopted some form of decriminalisation of drug possession, including some States that have only decriminalised cannabis possession. The main aim of the report was to look at the existing research to establish whether the adoption of a decriminalised policy led to significant increases in drug use - the simple answer is that it did not. This then begs the question that if the model of enforcement adopted has little impact on levels of use what is the point in pursuing a criminal justice approach which carries significant harms for individuals?

Eesti mudelit kirjeldatakse eeltoodud uudise alt leiduvalt lingilt laadidtud PDF-i 22. leheküljel.

Following amendments in 2002 to the Narcotic Drug and Psychotropic Substance Act, possession of small quantities of drugs for personal use has been decriminalised in Estonia. The ‘small quantity’ standard is one determined by judicial precedent or expert court opinions in a particular case, but is generally considered to be 10 times a single dose for an average drug user. While police still arrest individuals found with prohibited drugs, under the law, courts or ‘extra-judicial bodies’ may issue a sentence. This can include a fine of up to the equivalent of £685 or a sentence of administrative detention (non-prison detention) for up to 30 days. This is considered an administrative, not a criminal offence.

HaraldHaak
09-07-2012
kell 14:48

UK riiklikud spetsialistid on aastaga tuvastanud kohalikult uimastiturult 17 uut "legaalset" ainet, mis teeb rohkem kui ühe "uue" narkotsi kuus, vahendab The Daily Telegraph.

Between January 2011 and March this year, researchers obtained 1,300 samples that were analysed by scientists.

FEWS identified 17 New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) “not previously seen in the UK”, more than one a month.

Eight were found online, one at a festival and eight were identified after being seized by police.
Five were synthetic forms of cannabis, two were similar to ecstasy, one had effects similar to khat leaf and four were psychedelic drugs like magic mushrooms.

The Government has recently taken action to stop two legal highs being taken, with methoxetamine (Mexxy) being made subject to a one-year ban and importation of 2-DPMP (Ivory Wave, Purple Wave, Vanilla Sky) prohibited.

However 19 per cent of all samples seized contained drugs already controlled under the law, including cocaine, ketamine and MDMA, so anyone caught in possession of them could have faced prosecution.

Some of the “very potent” legal highs contained as many as eight different substances, so “no one can really be sure what each individual package contains”. /---/

The drugs found in Britain by researchers for the first time between January 2011 and March 2012
1. DMMA
2. MDAI (Sparkle)
3. Etizolam
4. JWH-250
5. JWH-200
6. AM-694
7. 4-Me0-PcP
8. 5-Me0-DALT
9. 2-AI
10. n-ethylbuphedrone
11. 2-C-C-NBoMe
12. AM-2201
13. Ipracetin
14. Ethacetin
15. 4-HO-MiPT
16. 2-C-P
17. 25D-NBOMe

HaraldHaak
09-07-2012
kell 14:51

[url=]The Onion[/url] teatab Ciudad Juárezi fantastilisest kavast hakata püüdma Mehhiko uimastiparuneid enne kartellide püünispaeladesse sattumist.

Community advocates in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, announced Tuesday the launch of a new intervention program aimed at reaching out to impressionable drug lords at high risk for becoming involved in cartels. "Drug lords' millions of dollars, control of ruthless paramilitary forces, and ownership of thousands of marijuana plantations make them by far the most vulnerable recruiting target for cartels," said program coordinator Jorge Garc'a Botella, adding that drug lords typically lack the kinds of positive role models who might encourage them to use their vast networks of smuggling tunnels more constructively. "Cartels provide drug lords with the sense of belonging they crave, but then these groups exploit them, using them for the influence they have over corrupt government officials."

HaraldHaak
09-07-2012
kell 14:51

Link kah: http://www.theonion.com/articles/mexican-program-aims-to-reach-drug-lords-before-th,28713/

Nucleus
09-07-2012
kell 16:34

The Onion on muidugi nii tõsine leht... =)

HaraldHaak
09-07-2012
kell 16:56

Et tõsine teema liiga tõsiseks ei läheks, peab vahepeal nalja ka tegema.

HaraldHaak
10-07-2012
kell 09:08

Päris korralik uimastisõja-teemaline verbaalmadin käib US News'i rubriigis "Debate Club".

Is it time to scale back the war on drugs? Here is the Debate Club's take:

YES — Even the police see regulation as the way to control drugs (NEILL FRANKLIN, Retired Cop and Executive Director of Law Enforcement Against Prohibition)

YES — After 40 years of failed strategy, it's time to end the war on drugs (AARON HOUSTON, Executive Director of the Students for Sensible Drug Policy Foundation)

YES — The government has wasted over a trillion dollars fighting drugs when it should be regulating them (PAUL ARMENTANO, Deputy Director of NORML, the National )

NO — Reducing the market for drugs is the shortest route out of the $193 billion in costs society incurs each year from them (KEVIN SABET, Former Senior Policy Adviser to President Obama's Drug Czar)

NO — Prevention, treatment, and law enforcement are effectively fighting drug use (DAVID G. EVANS, Special Adviser to the Drug Free America)


Igale arvamusele saab anda plusse ja miinuseid; hetkeseisuga jaotuvad "hääled" järgmisel:

Franklin: 422 poolt, 5 vastu
Houston: 374 poolt, 6 vastu
Armentano: 352 poolt, 4 vastu
Sabet: 5 poolt, 242 vastu
Evans: 5 poolt, 278 vastu

HaraldHaak
10-07-2012
kell 09:15

GW Pharmaceuticals (Sativexi tootja) on avastanud, et kombinatsioon kahest kanepi mõjuainest — kannabidioolist (CBD) ja tetrahüdrokannabivariinist (THCV) — reguleerivad ainevahetust moel, millest võib olla tolku suhkru- ja südamehaiguse riskiga ülekaalulistele.

Researchers have discovered two compounds from cannabis leaves that can increase the amount of energy the body burns.

Test in animals have already shown the compounds can help treat type two diabetes while also helping to reduce levels of cholesterol in the blood stream and fat in key organs like the liver.

They are now conducting clinical trials in 200 patients in the hope of producing a drug that can be used to treat patients suffering from “metabolic syndrome”, where diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity combine to increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. /---/

Although cannabis is an illegal drug, GW Pharmaceuticals has been granted a license to grow the plant in specially constructed greenhouses on a secret facility in the south of England.

It produces cannabis plants that have been bred to express different quantities of compounds known as cannabinoids. They are already developing drugs that can be used to treat multiple sclerosis and epilepsy.

Although cannabis is better known for inducing hunger in those who smoke it, known as the munchies. when the scientists examined two compounds, called THCV and cannabidiol, they were found to have an appetite suppressing effect.

This effect only lasts for a short time, however. When the scientists looked closer, they found the compounds also had an impact on the level of fat in the body and its response to insulin, a hormone that controls the sugar levels in the blood.

Tests in mice showed the compounds boosted the animals metabolism, leading to lower levels of fat in their livers and reduced cholesterol in their blood stream.

THCV was also found to increase the animals sensitivity to insulin while also protecting the cells that produce insulin, allowing them to work better and for longer.

HaraldHaak
10-07-2012
kell 09:16

Sry, link ka: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/9383640/Cannabis-could-be-used-to-treat-obesity-related-diseases.html

HaraldHaak
10-07-2012
kell 16:46

GW Pharma tehtud katsed näitavad, et mõnedest kanepi toimeainetest võib olla tolku ülemäärase kõhukusega seotud haiguste ravis (Forte <-- Kanepitemp <-- Daily Telegraph).

Ehkki kanepit teatakse pigem ainena, mis kutsub selle suitsetajail esile söögiisu, selgus kahe konkreetse kanepiühendi, kannabidiooli (CBD) ja tetrahüdrokannabivariini (THCV) mõjude uuringust, et need hoopis pärsivad isu.

Mõju ei ole siiski pikaajaline. Lähemal uurimisel selgus aga, et ühendid mõjutavad ka rasvasisaldust vereringes ja organismi reaktsiooni insuliinile — hormoonile, mis reguleerib veresuhkru taset.

Hiirte peal tehtud katsed näitasid, et ühend kiirendab loomade ainevahetust, mis omakorda toob kaasa maksa rasvasisalduse kahanemise ja vereringes leiduva kolesterooli osakaalu alanemise.

Samuti avastati, et THCV kahandab loomade tundlikkust insuliini suhtes, kaitstes lisaks insuliini tootvaid rakke nii, et nende töö muutub tõhusamaks ja eeldatav eluiga pikeneb.

Uurimus annab lootust, et ainete põhjal on võimalik töötada välja uued ravimid ülekaalulisusega seonduvate haiguste ja teise tüübi diabeedi raviks.

PeZ
10-07-2012
kell 16:58

kiusavad poisse: http://www.tartupostimees.ee/902940/kanepi-tarvitamise-kahtlusega-kutsealused-saadeti-narkoekspertiisi

HaraldHaak
11-07-2012
kell 09:03

Transform UK tutvustab ajalehes The Sun ilmunud rahvaküsitluse tulemusi. Paistab, et britid on valmis uurima alternatiive keeluseadusele.

Hot on the heels of UK Justice Minister Ken Clarke admitting we are "plainly losing the War on Drugs", comes a poll for The Sun newspaper showing the public agree - 86% of people now think that the UK has a serious drug problem.

When asked what we should do about it, 45% think the sale and possession of cannabis should not be a criminal offence, whilst 15% think the same about "hard drugs".

The poll also shows 46% of the public would support Portuguese-style decriminalisation of the possession (but not sale) of all drugs (with 32% opposing).

This rises to fully 60% of the public supporting limited trials of Portuguese-style decriminalisation of all drugs in some British cities - with just 24% opposing.

Transform has long argued that a key step needed to reassure the public, move forward based on evidence of what works, and provide politicians with cover to change policy, would be for the Government to commission a review comparing the current approach to drugs with alternatives. The Sun polled on this too.

58% of the UK public support a Government review comparing the current approach to drugs with Portuguese-style decriminalisation, and full legalisation, with just 22% opposing it.

In other words, there is a strong appetite for exploring drug law reform, as long as the public is given the reassurance that it will be done in a sensible, piloted, evidence-based way (as Transform is calling for) rather than suddenly and irreversibly - which of course no one wants.

There is also a crucial message here for politicians - the polls show that if they follow this approach they have nothing to fear electorally. There is majority support for both a review and piloted trials of decriminalisation across supporters of all parties, both genders and all socio-economic groups.

Serial K
11-07-2012
kell 09:38

kiusavad poisse: http://www.tartupostimees.ee/902940/kanepi-tarvitamise-kahtlusega-kutsealused-saadeti-narkoekspertiisi

kuidas selline kahtlus tekib, huvitav? pea ainuke võimalus, et jäid otse suitsetamisega vahele.

No Quarter
11-07-2012
kell 09:46

Sõber läks eelmine aasta. Rivistati üles ja öeldi, et kes tarvitanud on, astugu samm ette. Mõtles, et savi, täiskasvanud inimene, vastutab ise oma tegude eest ja astus ette. Ma ei mäleta hetkel kui suur see trahvisumma oli aga ütleme nii, et kutil jäi päris mitu nädalavahetust baaris käimata selle pärast :)

HaraldHaak
11-07-2012
kell 10:59

Täiesti mõistlik on eeldada, et enne väeteenistusse siirdumist peetakse üks pidu, mis tõesti pidu on, koos kõige sinna juurde kuuluvaga. Vaevalt Peitelile, Kostabile ja muudele asjast huvitatud tegelastele on uudiseks, et nüüdisajal kuuluvad pidude juurde uimastid üsna sageli. Selle juures pühakusilmi pööritada ja ühiskonna allakäigust ägada on aga lihtsalt silmakirjalik — eriti veel kui, nagu 'tikkel sedastab, oli tegu "läbi aegade kõige madalama tulemusega" ja "varasemalt on meelemürke tarvitanuid olnud rohkem".

«Eks see ole peegeldus meie ühiskonnast,» nentis Kostabi kurvalt.

Jõle põhjus kurvastada küll, et nekrutite uimastikasutuse näitajad alanevad...

Kari Jürtosid, ma ütlen!

henri.
11-07-2012
kell 15:29

kõva on muidugi ka see, et nii mõnigi sõjaväes käinud sõber-tuttav on kas linnaloa ajal (nädalavahetusel nt) mõne kõrgema ülemusega kohtudes koos jointi pahvinud, teinud seda peale sõjaväge - kõrgem ohvitser on siis ise endiselt sõjaväelasena tööl - või lausa "sees" olles.
ei heida seda siinkohal absoluutselt kellelegi mitte midagi ette, need asja üle vingujad võiks lihtsalt enda nokad koos hoida, asjad isekeskis ära õiendada - kui keegi seaduserikkumsega vahele jääb, siis trahv jne -, mitte meediasse pasundama tulla.

pahareino
12-07-2012
kell 14:28

Uudiseid ka tulpide maalt:

386 arrested in Limburg since coffee shops became clubs

Wednesday 11 July 2012

Police in Limburg have arrested 386 people for soft drugs offences since new rules for cannabis cafes came into effect in May, news agency ANP reports on Wednesday.

However, the ANP report did not state how many people were arrested for soft drugs offences during the same period last year, before the law changed.

On May 1, all so-called coffee shops in the south of the country became private members’ clubs and customers must prove they live in the locality to be able to buy soft drugs. The measure will go nationwide on January 1, 2013.

Crime

In total, some 80 coffee shops in Limburg, Zeeland and Brabant are affected. The government hopes the new rules will reduce drugs tourism and criminality.

However, there are growing signs both tourists and locals are turning to street dealers and few locals are signing up for coffee shop membership, partly due to privacy fears. They too are now buying soft drugs from street traders, ANP said.

Most of those arrested came from the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium, the report said. Limburg has assigned an extra 24 police officers to drugs duty in an effort to combat the illegal trade.


Research published earlier this week showed an illegal street-dealing network has already developed in the south of the country and coffee shop members are being hassled by others to buy drugs on their behalf.

In addition, youngsters are now being exposed to other drugs because the strict separation between hard and soft drugs no longer applies, the Maastricht University researchers said.

Osmium
26-07-2012
kell 22:54

kanep võib osutuda lävepakuks kangemate droogideni, sest, kui ametlikud allikad kirjeldavad kanepit ebaproportsionaalselt hirmutades (stiilis "Tuleb ka arvestada, et kuna kaasaegnegi meditsiin inimese psüühikat ja selle toimemehhanisme suures osas lihtsalt ei tunne, võib olla kindel, et suurt osa kanepi kahjulikest omadustest me täna täpselt ei tea."), ja inimese enda kogemus ei ühti "spetsialistide" poolt väljapakutuga, siis süveneb/tekib umbusaldus ka teiste droogide kohta käiva info suhtes. näiteks.

rrrauh
26-07-2012
kell 23:29

Näiteks tõesti, aga see võiks juba ammmmmu selge olla, et kui pole ühesuguseid sõrmejälgi, siis ega inimesed ka ühest ja samast tehasest ei tule. Kipub ununema kahjuks.
Ise ei näe hetkel eriti millegi jaoks vajadust, mu aju toodab niigi imelikke asju.
Kanepiseemneõli on nt ilgelt hää, massaažiks superluks. Muud ma ei tea.